Lighthouses for Kids – Source Notes

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Notes to Readers
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7

Note to Readers

p. iv–“You might be surprised…” For interpretation of various definitions, see a discussion by Ken Trethewey of the Lighthouse Society of Great Britain, available from, accessed January 5, 2007.

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Chapter 1

p. 2–“It was difficult…”: Philmore B. Wass, A Lighthouse In My Life: The Story of a Maine Lightkeeper’s Family (Camden, Maine: Down East Books, 1987), 63.

p. 2–“Feeling like midgets…”: Ibid.

p. 3–“It had been…”: Ibid., 64.

p. 4–“Mother would open…”: Mary F. Sanderlin, “Stories of Lower Penns Neck” (Pennsville, N.J.) Lower Penns Neck Board of Education, 1965), quoted in Jim Gowdy and Kim Ruth, Guiding Lights of the Delaware River & Bay (Egg Harbor City, N.J.: Laureate Press Inc., 1999), 90.

p. 4–“I thought I…”: Harold B. Jennings, A Lighthouse Family (Orleans, Mass.: Lower Cape Publishing Co., 1989), 94.

p. 4–“It was cheaper…”: Norma Engel, Three Beams of Light (San Diego: Tecolote Publications, 1986), 189.

p. 7–“We dreamed of having…”: Betty Byrnes Bacon, “Lighthouse Memories,” compiled by Debra Ann Holmes (Brimley, Mich.: Bay Mills-Brimley Historical Research Society, 1989), 14-15.

p. 8–“an ever-present fear that…”: Wass, Lighthouse In My Life, 24.

pp. 8-9–“Daddy took the scissors…”: John Grant and Ray Jones, Legendary Lighthouses: The Companion to the PBS Television Series (Old Saybrook, Conn.: The Globe Pequot Press, 1988), 85.

p. 10–“Use of the rowboat…”: Engel, Three Beams of Light, 111-112.

p. 10–“clasped its small…”: Rosamond Thaxter, compiler, Sandpiper: The Life & Letters of Celia Thaxter and her home on the Isles of Shoals(;) her family, friends & favorite poems, revised ed. (Francestown, N.H.: Marshall Jones Company Publishers, 1963), 11.

p. 10–“You get in touch…”: Elinor De Wire, Guardians of the Lights: The Men and Women of the U.S. Lighthouse Service (Sarasota, Fla.: Pineapple Press Inc., 1995), 174-175.

p. 10–“Kites became a blessing…”: Glenn Furst, My Point of View (1992), 16.

p. 11–“hated the place”: Wass, Lighthouse In My Life, 236.

p. 11–“prisoner” and “After school-hours…”: Annie Bell Hobbs, “Another Lighthouse Story,” The Nursery: A Monthly Magazine for Youngest Readers XIX (1876): 68.

p. 14–“I don’t think…”: Furst, My Point of View, 5.

p. 15–“more contented with”: “The Keeper’s Library,” The Keeper’s Log, Summer 1995: 21.

p. 16–“School went along…”: Furst, My Point of View, 81.

p. 16–“in the rather bare…”: Mary Ellen Chase, The Story of Lighthouses (New York: W. W. Norton, 1965), 144.

p. 17–“He may have been…” Mazie Freeman Anderson, “Return to Petit Manan Station,” The Keeper’s Log, Summer 1995: 20.

p. 17–“Children of the…”: Bacon, “Lighthouse Memories,” 6.

p. 17–“The president and…” and “It is believed…”: Lighthouse Service Bulletin, September 1928: 255. Emmett DeRusha’s story is recounted in a book by his sister,  Vivian DeRusha Quantz, Foghorns Saved Lives, Too: Lighthouse Living in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula (Skandia, Mich.: Keeper’s Publishing, 1999), 2-3.

p. 18–“He landed at…”: Note from Seamond Ponsart Roberts mentioned in Jeremy D’Entremont’s “75th Anniversary Dinner,” Flying Santa News: December 2004.

p. 18–“was a top event”: Seamond Ponsart Roberts, “Christmas Memories: A Lighthouse Keeper’s Daughter—1940-1957,” Flying Santa News: December 2000.

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Chapter 2

p. 20–“tower of great height” and “wonderful construction”: George R. Putnam, Lighthouses and Lightships of the United States (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1917), 287.

p. 21–“prevent the loss”: Ibid, 1.

p. 22–“with all convenient speed”: Lighthouse Service Bulletin, January 1939: 151.

p. 23–“The power of propelling…” and “cheap and quick conveyance”: Alice Crary Sutcliffe, Robert Fulton and The Clermont (New York: The Century Co., 1909); available from the Hudson River Maritime Museum web site,; accessed January 5, 2007.

p. 24–“Shipping was vital…”: Cheryl Shelton-Roberts and Bruce Roberts, Lighthouse Families (Birmingham, Ala.: Crane Hill Publishers, 1997), 44.

pp. 24-25–“has caused great…”: Candace Clifford, Nineteenth-Century Lights: Historic Images of American Lighthouses (Alexandria, Va.: Cypress Communications, 2000), 63.

p. 28–“maintains a lamp…”: Ambrose Bierce, The Devil’s Dictionary (1911; repr., New York: Dover Publications Inc., 1958), 78.

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Chapter 3

p. 39–“a bar of iron…”: “Mitchell’s Screwpile Foundation,” The Keeper’s Log, Summer 1990: 10.

p. 41–“All across the Bay…”: Larry Jerome Ritter, “Wolf’s Trap Lighthouse Takes Name from a Wreck There 264 Years Ago,” Norfolk Virginian-Pilot and The Portsmouth Star, December 4, 1955, quoted in Pat Vojtech, Lighting the Bay: Tales of Chesapeake Lighthouses (Centreville, Md.: Tidewater Publishers, 1996), 53.

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Chapter 4

p. 48–“reel like a…”: Donald Eckels and Robert Fraser, “The First Minots Ledge Lighthouse,” The Keeper’s Log, Fall 1995, 6.

p. 48–“The lighthouse won’t…”: Ibid., 8.

p. 48–“every workman had…” Donald E. Eckels, The Second Minots Ledge Lighthouse,” The Keeper’s Log, Fall 1995, 11.

p. 49–“Roller coming”: Ibid., 12.

p. 49–“We find ourselves…”: Putnam, Lighthouses and Lightships, 76.

p. 51–“Whenever I smell…”: Bella Bathhurst, The Lighthouse Stevensons (New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1999), xvii.

p. 53–“Mount Everest of lighthouses”: Grant and Jones, Legendary Lighthouses, 110.

p. 53–“During the last…”: Split Rock Lighthouse: Minnesota Historic Sites Pamphlet Series, No. 15 Revised ed. (St. Paul, Minn.: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1993), 4.

p. 54–“One memorable evening…” Ralph Russell Tinkham, “The Building of Split Rock Light Station, Minnesota,” Minnesota Historical Society Manuscript Collections, P1138-7, page 7.

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Chapter 5

p. 60–“glistened like carefully…”: Engel, Three Beams of Light, 119.

p. 63–“There were sixteen sides…”: Alice Weeks, “Harry Weeks—The Keeper’s Son,” The Keeper’s Log, Winter 2001: 16.

p. 66–“are greatly inferior…,”: Compilation of Public Documents and Extracts from Reports and Papers Relating to Light-Houses, Light-Vessels, and Illuminating Apparatus, and to Beacons, Buoys, and Fog Signals, 1789-1871 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1871), 94.

p. 66–“entirely unfounded”: Ibid., 106.

p. 66–“The Navesink lights…”: Ibid., 754.

p. 67–“Kerosene for the light…”: Wass, Lighthouse In My Life, 33.

p. 67–“Somewhat blinded…”: Ibid..

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Chapter 6

p. 70–“I can depend…”: Edward Rowe Snow, The Lighthouses of New England (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1973), 8.

p. 70–“Lighthouse tore down…”: Ibid., 6.

p. 72–“As the tide…”: Mary Louise Clifford and J. Candace Clifford, Women Who Kept the Lights: An Illustrated History of Female Lighthouse Keepers (Williamsburg, Va.: Cypress Communications, 1993), 25.

p. 72–“Though at times…”: Ibid., 26.

p. 73–“steady and respectable,” “so necessary” and “in the hands…”: Clifford, Nineteenth-Century Lights, 63.

p. 74–“We keepers were setting…”: Robert Thayer Sterling, Lighthouses of the Maine Coast and the Men Who Keep Them (Brattleboro, Vt.: Stephen Daye Press, 1935), 206.

p. 74–“went to the beacon…”: Clifford and Clifford, Women Who Kept the Lights, 66.

p. 74–“broad streak reaching…” U.S. Lighthouse Service Bulletin, October 1914: 134.

p. 74–“One victim was the daughter…” The story of the Chellis children is based on accounts in De Wire’s Guardians of the Light, 116-117.

p. 75–“plenty scared”: Veronica Cady, “Small Before the Sea,” available from the U.S. Coast Guard Historian’s Office web site,; accessed January 5, 2007.

p. 75–“There is not…”: Great Lakes Shipwreck Historical Society, “Whitefish Point Light Station 1849” (Berien Center, Mich.: Penrod/Hiawatha, 1998), 10.

p. 76–“aid wrecked persons…”: Great Lakes Lighthouse Keepers Association, Instructions to Light-Keepers: A photo reproduction of the 1902 Edition of Instructions to Light-Keepers and Masters of Light-House Vessels (Allen Park, Mich.: GLLKA, 1989), 6.

p. 76–“was a most daring…”: DeWire, Guardians of the Light, 199.

p. 76–“shrewd gray eyes” and “as ruddy as…”: “Kept House Nineteen Years on Robbins Reef,” New York Times, March 5, 1906: section 3, page 7.

p. 77–“Then I learned…”: “At Seventy She Keeps the Light of New York’s Inner Harbor,” The Literary Digest, July 13, 1918: 58.

p. 78–“It took the two…”: Vojtech, Lighting the Bay, 99-100.

p. 79–“The old fog signal…”: Great Lakes Shipwreck Historical Society, “Whitefish Point Light Station 1849,” 7.

p. 79–“For the rest…”: Engel, Three Beams of Light, 146.

p. 80–“You had to…” Laurie Schreiber, “On the Rocks,” Bar Harbor Times, September 14, 2000, available from the College of the Atlantic web site,, accessed January 5, 2007.

p. 80–“The devil himself…” Morong’s poem is reprinted many places, including Sterling, Lighthouses of the Maine Coast, 33-34.

p. 81–“I once made…”: Shannon Lowry and Jeff Schultz, Northern Lights: Tales of Alaska’s Lighthouses and Their Keepers (Harrisburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 1992), 68.

p. 81–“If you were…” Quoted in Susan Sulavik Peters, producer, “Lighthouses of New England” video (Hartford, Conn.: Connecticut Public Television Production, 1988).

p. 82–“any item of interest…”: GLLKA, Instructions to Light-Keepers, 15.

p. 82–“Keeper painted bedroom floor…”: Journal of the Lighthouse Station at Sand Island for the Month of June, 1899, available from the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore web site,, accessed January 3, 2007.

p. 82–“I heard the news…”: Mac Frimodig, “The Fort Wilkins Story,” (N.p.: The Fort Wilkins Natural History Association with The Michigan Department of Resources, n.d.), unpaginated.

p. 82–“Independence Day came…” Peter Bosman, Lighthouses & Range Lights of Door County, Wisconsin (Ellison Bay, Wis.: Wm Caxton Ltd., 2000), 58.

p. 83–“The building I loved most…”: Anderson, “Return to Petit Manan Station,” 17.

p. 84–“Many winter days…”: Bacon, “Lighthouse Memories,” 17.

p. 84–“I can remember…”: Jennings, Lighthouse Family, 12 and 14.

p. 84–“Inspections were a nuisance…”: Engel, Three Beams of Light, 243.

p. 84–“He came across…”: Furst, My Point of View, 48.

p. 84–“Somehow when we were…”: Quoted in Susan Sulavik Peters, producer, “Lighthouses of New England” video (Hartford, Conn.: Connecticut Public Television Production, 1988).

p. 86–“Nothing could rouse…”: Elizabeth Whitney Williams, A Child of the Sea; and Life Among the Mormons excerpted in Victoria Brehm, The Women’s Great Lakes Reader (Tustin, Mich.: Ladyslipper Press, 2000), 276.

p. 86–“No matter what…”: Wass, Lighthouse In My Life, 226.

p. 87–“Goodbye, Nellie, ship…”: Willard Flint, “A History of U.S. Lightships,” available from the U.S. Coast Guard Historian’s Office web site,, accessed January 5, 2007.

p. 87–“If it weren’t…”: Gustav Kobbe, “Life on the South Shoal Lighthouse,” reprinted from Century Magazine (Silverthorne, Colo.: Vistabooks Publishing, 1993), 35.

p. 87–“a term of…”: Ibid., 36.

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Chapter 7

p. 95–“Hildegarde Swift and her family…”: Hewson Swift, telephone conversation with author, May 15, 2000.

p. 97–“keepers of tomorrow”: This phrase was coined by Dick Moehl, founder of the Great Lakes Lighthouse Keepers Association.

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